What Causes Stomach Cancer?
Stomach cancers, like other cancers, are caused by changes in the DNA inside cells. DNA is the chemical that carries our genes, which control how our cells function. We look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than how we look. Learn about the causes and risk factors for stomach cancer and ways you might be able to help lower your risk of developing the cancer. Stomach Cancer: Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention What patients and caregivers need to know about cancer, coronavirus, and COVID
There are many known risk factors for stomach cancer also called gastric cancerbut often it's not clear exactly how these factors might affect how cells in the stomach become cancer cells. This age the subject of ongoing research. In atrophic gastritisthe normal gland cells stomah the stomach are either fewer or absent.
There is also some degree sotmach inflammation in which the stomach cells are damaged by cells of the immune system. Atrophic gastritis is often caused by infection with H pylori bacteria see below. Some people with this condition go on to develop pernicious anemia or other stomach problems, including cancer. Another possible pre-cancerous change is intestinal metaplasia. In this condition, the cells that normally line the stomach are replaced by cells that look like the cells that usually line the intestine.
People with this condition often have chronic atrophic gastritis as well. This might also be related to H pylori infection. Damage to the DNA inside these cells can sometimes lead to dysplasiain which the cells become larger and very abnormal looking more like cancer cells. In some cases, dysplasia can then progress to stomach cancer.
Recent research has provided clues on how some th cancers form. For instance, H pylori bacteria, particularly certain subtypes, can convert substances in some foods into chemicals that cause mutations changes in the DNA of the cells in the stomach lining. Stomach cancers, like other cancers, are caused by changes in the DNA inside cauees. DNA is the chemical that carries our geneswhich control how our cells function.
We look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than how we look. Cancers can be caused by DNA changes that keep oncogenes ehat on, or that turn off tumor suppressor genes. But these are thought to cause only a small percentage of stomach cancers. Most of the gene changes that lead to stomach cancer occur after birth.
Some of these acquired mutations might how to connect xbox to pc monitor vga caused by risk factors such as H pylori infection or tobacco use. But other gene changes may just be random events that causs happen inside cells, without having an outside cause.
The stomach is a muscular sac in the middle of the upper abdomen that helps break down and digest food. Food you eat passes down your esophagus, through the gastroesophageal junction and into the stomach. Cancer of the gastroesophageal junction develops in the area where the esophagus joins the top part of the stomach. Stomach cancer most commonly begins in the cells that line the inside of the stomach.
Stomach cancer is an abnormal growth of cells that begins in the stomach. The stomach is a muscular sac located in the upper middle of your abdomen, just below your ribs. Your stomach receives and holds the food you eat and then helps to break down and digest it. Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, can affect any part of the stomach. In most of the world, stomach cancers form in the main part of the stomach stomach body.
But in the United States, stomach cancer is more likely to affect the area where the long tube esophagus that carries food you swallow meets the stomach. This area is called the gastroesophageal junction. Where the cancer occurs in the stomach is one factor doctors consider when determining your treatment options. Treatment usually includes surgery to remove the stomach cancer.
Other treatments may be recommended before and after surgery. If you have signs and symptoms that worry you, make an appointment with your doctor. Your doctor will likely investigate more-common causes of these signs and symptoms first.
It's not clear what causes stomach cancer, though research has identified many factors that can increase the risk. Doctors know that stomach cancer begins when a cell in the stomach develops changes in its DNA. A cell's DNA contains the instructions that tell the cell what to do. The changes tell the cell to grow quickly and to continue living when healthy cells would die.
The accumulating cells form a tumor that can invade and destroy healthy tissue. With time, cells can break off and spread metastasize to other areas of the body.
Stomach cancer care at Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Don't delay your care at Mayo Clinic Schedule your appointment now for safe in-person care. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Request an appointment. Overview Gastroesophageal junction and stomach Open pop-up dialog box Close. Gastroesophageal junction and stomach The stomach is a muscular sac in the middle of the upper abdomen that helps break down and digest food.
Gastroesophageal junction cancer Open pop-up dialog box Close. Gastroesophageal junction cancer Cancer of the gastroesophageal junction develops in the area where the esophagus joins the top part of the stomach. Stomach cancer Open pop-up dialog box Close. Stomach cancer Stomach cancer most commonly begins in the cells that line the inside of the stomach.
Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic. Share on: Facebook Twitter. Show references AskMayoExpert. Gastric cancer adult. Mayo Clinic; Gastric cancer. National Comprehensive Cancer Network.
Accessed July 24, Niederhuber JE, et al. Cancer of the stomach. In: Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. Elsevier; Gastric cancer treatment PDQ.
National Cancer Institute. Accessed July 27, Gastric stomach cancer prevention PDQ. Palliative care. Warner KJ. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic. Related Infographic: Stomach Cancer Stomach cancer. News from Mayo Clinic Many younger patients with stomach cancer have a distinct disease, Mayo research discovers Dec.
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