Are You at Risk of Having a Baby With Down Syndrome?
What is the Risk for Down Syndrome? Some parents have a greater risk of having a baby with Down syndrome, including: Maternal Age. As a woman’s eggs age, there is a higher risk of the chromosomes dividing incorrectly. Therefore the risk of Down syndrome increases with a woman’s age. Aug 15, · The incidence of fetal trisomies is directly related to maternal age. 7 The risk of having a child with Down syndrome increases in a gradual, linear fashion until about age 30 and increases Cited by:
You may have heard about genetic testing for Down Syndrome during pregnancy. But what exactly is Down Syndrome? What are your chances of birthing a baby with this condition? Researchers do not know a lot about what causes Down Syndrome, but they do know a lot about how it works. There is also a lot of knowledge out there about some specific risk factors that increase your chances of having a baby with Down Syndrome. More: Screening Tests During Pregnancy. What do I know about all of this?
As an elementary teacher, I once had a young boy with Down Syndrome integrated into my mainstream classroom. At the start of our time together, I did not have an assistant teacher to support him, so that responsibility fell to me. I took it upon myself to research and develop a project that helped the neurotypical children in my class understand Down Syndrome and how to get along together and welcome this boy into our class.
Along with my specific research into Down Syndrome, I also have a background in Genetics. I have researched this subject in-depth and I have taught basic courses in Genetics. Additionally, I have studied and written specifically about genetic screening for Down Syndrome. First I will explain to you what Down Syndrome is. Next, we will move onto discuss maternal risk factors. How to find childminder registered with ofsted, I will go over the types of screening available and any possible risks they include.
Down Syndrome is something that people are born with. For every babies born, one will have Down Syndrome. The condition is named after Dr.
Down, who noticed that certain kids with learning problems also had other similarities, including how they looked. Down Syndrome affects how people grow and how they learn, including the way they act with other people. To understand Down Syndrome, you first have to learn what chromosomes are. They are codes that tell the body how to grow. Chromosomes start working before a baby is even born, as it develops in the womb.
They are there from the time a human is composed of only one cell. As the baby grows, it is composed of many, many more cells, but inside every cell exists the same set of chromosomes. In every cell, a person has 46 chromosomes with the exception of sperm and egg cells, which have 23 each so that a new baby will receive 46 total. Everyone has their own unique code. The only people who have the same code are identical twins, and that is why they look the same. All of us generally receive 23 chromosomes from our mother and 23 from our father.
Each of them can be identified. They have names like Chromosome 1, Chromosome 2, Chromosome 3, all the way to Chromosome Generally, we all have two of each chromosome, after receiving one of how to make white sangria recipe from each parent.
This also explains why you might look a little like one or both of your parents. These people have three copies of Chromosomes This is why Down Syndrome is also called Trisomy what are the risks of down syndrome in pregnancy They also make them learn and act differently. Various mutations can occur in the number of chromosomes a child receives from their parents. In the case of Down Syndrome, the child receives an extra of Chromosome 21, for a total of three.
In the case of Trisomy 18, there are three sets of Chromosome how to use yahoo messenger without downloading it Mutations in the number of chromosomes either more or less will affect the way the baby grows and learns.
People who share the same variance in chromosomes will display similar traits. For example, people with Down Syndrome have low muscle tone, an upward slant to the eyes, and delayed language development, among other things. Not much is known about why some children are born with Down Syndrome and others are not. There is no specific race or economic background where it is more common. Although Down Syndrome occurs at the genetic level, it is not necessarily hereditary: you will not usually see family background that predicts its occurrence.
There is, however, a key risk factor. Maternal age is the single most decisive factor in how likely it is to birth a child with Down Syndrome. It can happen at any age, but the older a mother gets, it becomes much more probable. In fact, as maternal age rises, the likelihood of the condition increases quite sharply.
According to the National Down Syndrome Society, the risk factors based on maternal age are as follows:. The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommends that all expecting women be offered prenatal genetic screening. It is not compulsory and can be refused, but it remains an option for any age. Previously, only women over 35 were offered screening. First Trimester screening uses a combination of factors a blood test and an ultrasound to assess your baby's risk for certain chromosomal abnormalities.
The screen is generally what are the risks of down syndrome in pregnancy to check for Trisomy 21 Down Syndromebut it also checks for another abnormality called Trisomy A screening test provides you with a chance of having a child with a chromosomal abnormality. It will not tell you if your baby has or does not have a chromosomal abnormality. It is important to understand that screening is not diagnosis.
It's possible to be considered high risk and have a completely normal baby, and it's possible to be considered low risk and have a baby with an abnormality. If your screening indicates a high risk of having a baby with chromosomal abnormalities, an amniocentesis will be recommended. An amniocentesis will give you a diagnosis of whether or not your baby has Down Syndrome or chromosomal abnormality.
The amniocentesis consists of extracting a small amount of amniotic fluid from your womb by sending a very thin needle through the skin. The amniotic fluid contains fetal DNA, which is where the baby's chromosomes can be found. It is important to note that an amniocentesis does pose a potential danger to the baby.
The possibility of miscarriage after amniocentesis is about 1 inor even less. It's a fairly small chance, but it is there. One important reason mothers may choose to screen for chromosomal abnormality is so that they can prepare themselves both emotionally and practically for the experience of raising a baby with certain challenges. Educating oneself and processing the shock and even grief that comes with learning that your child won't be as you imagined can be very helpful. Here's a thought—if your risk is high, you could learn something about Down Syndrome just in case, or maybe do the screening even if you're not particularly older.
Then if you find out you have a higher chance than you thought, but you're not comfortable with amniocentesis, you can still learn a few things that could help if your baby is born with it.
For what is vitamin b complex you having a geriatric pregnancy? Elisa is a well-known parenting writer. She is an expert on child behavior and certified in Positive Discipline. Elisa Cinelli. You may know about Down Syndrome, but do you know what causes it? Genetics expert and educator Elisa Cinelli breaks down what Down Syndrome is, the maternal risk factors, and the types of screening tests for Down Syndrome.
What is Down Syndrome? According to the National Down Syndrome Society, the risk factors based on maternal age are as follows: 25 years old—1 in 1, 35 years old—1 in 40 years old—1 in 49 years old—1 in 10 Genetic Screening for Down Syndrome The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommends that all expecting women be offered prenatal genetic screening.
Further Testing for Down Syndrome If your screening indicates a high risk of having a baby with chromosomal abnormalities, an amniocentesis will be recommended. How to Prep for Screening for Down Syndrome One important reason mothers may choose to screen for chromosomal abnormality is so that they can prepare themselves both emotionally and practically for the experience of raising a baby with certain challenges.
Don't have time to read now? Pin it for later: Are you having a geriatric pregnancy? Elisa Cinelli Elisa is a well-known parenting writer. View more articles from this author. Pregnancy Failure to Progress in Labor. FEN Learning is part of Sandbox Networks, a digital learning company that operates education services and products for the 21st century.
Etiology and Clinical Manifestations
Oct 19, · If you have already had a child with Down syndrome, your risk will go up with each pregnancy. Translocation Down syndrome can be passed from parent to child but it is considered rare. Screening Tests for Down Syndrome in Pregnancy. Down syndrome risk by age may increase, but screening is offered to everyone as routine. These screening tests can determine the likelihood that a mother has a baby with Down syndrome. . Jan 16, · Blood tests measure hCG (human Chorionic gonadotropin), PAPP-A (pregnancy associated plasma protein) and if the level of these two are abnormal, the risk for Down syndrome is high. Thanks to previously mentioned, women who are at risk may further undergo CVS or amniocentesis, diagnostic tests that can confirm or rule out the nicefreedatingall.com: Mia Benson. Mar 12, · Down syndrome affects the internal organs, such as the brain, heart, and eyes. Health challenges include heart defects, joint problems, hypothyroidism, gastrointestinal problems, and vision issues. How early in a pregnancy can Down syndrome be diagnosed?
Down syndrome represents the most commonly reported chromosomal abnormality and one of several that can be properly diagnosed while the baby is still inside the uterus.
There are specific tests which can confirm or rule out the condition and allow a woman to decide whether she wants to keep the baby or opt for abortion. Testing for Down syndrome is recommended for all women over the age of 35 because the incidence of Down syndrome increases as the woman gets older.
There are two types of testing. The first one is a screening test which only estimates the risk for Down syndrome while the second one including CVS and amniocentesis provides with adequate information and confirms or rules out the disorder.
Screening Tests for Down Syndrome. Even though there are many screening tests for Down syndrome not all of them are routinely performed. However, women may pay for additional tests not recommended by their doctors and have these done.
Initially, pregnant women undergo ultrasound and certain blood tests. If these indicate increased risk for Down syndrome, women further undergo specific diagnostic tests. A well experienced doctor performs a nuchal translucency NT scan. This examination is performed between 11th and 14th week of pregnancy. During the scan, the doctor measures the amount of fluid under the skin at the back of the baby's neck which is associated with the risk of developing Down syndrome.
Blood tests measure hCG human Chorionic gonadotropin , PAPP-A pregnancy associated plasma protein and if the level of these two are abnormal, the risk for Down syndrome is high. Thanks to previously mentioned, women who are at risk may further undergo CVS or amniocentesis, diagnostic tests that can confirm or rule out the syndrome. This way women may timely chose to continue with their pregnancy or to terminate pregnancy.
Second Trimester Screening. In the second trimester a woman undergoes blood tests between 15th and 20th week of pregnancy. Sometimes these indicators may be combined and different test created. So, there are the double, triple and quadruple tests. These blood tests are much more accurate in older women. Still, by the time a woman obtains results she may be well into her pregnancy.
The next step for women at risk is amniocentesis and definitive conformation or ruling out of Down syndrome. If the diagnosis is confirmed, the woman must consult her doctor about the most convenient way of terminating pregnancy. Termination of pregnancy in the second trimester is much more traumatic comparing to the same process performed in the first trimester.
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