When Is the Appropriate Age to Start Dating?
Discussions of race and intelligence, specifically claims of differences in intelligence along racial lines, have appeared in both popular science and academic research since the modern concept of race was first introduced. With the inception of IQ testing in the early 20th century, differences in average test performance between racial groups were observed, though these differences have. Apr 14, · Tween and Tween are polysorbate surfactants with a fatty acid ester moiety and a long polyoxyethylene chain. They have very low CMC, are generally gentle surfactants, do not affect protein activity and are effective in solubilization. Tweens are not common ingredients of cell lysis buffers; however, they are routinely used as washing.
Looking for things for your tween boy to be engaged in? This post is ro of activities, hobbies, jobs, and more that tweens will enjoy. My sons are currently 15, 12, and 10, and 7. My experience has doess that tween boys have a LOT of energy. Constant climbing, doe, running, etc. Plenty of opportunities for active play and heavy work mowing the lawn, hauling rock, using tools, etc.
NOTE: There is no set age that kids are ready to do more dangerous things, such tweenn mow the lawn. This post is designed to be a reference and a spring-board for ideas. Take what you can use, and leave the rest. And yes, girls will enjoy these activities too — this is just meant to be a resource for those looking for activities for boys. Encourage unplugged play and hobbies! There are so many interesting things to do besides endless YouTube videos and video games. But kids will never discover all these things when electronics SEEM more interesting than anything else.
Help them create good habits and establish productive hobbies by keeping technology reigned in at your house. Show your kids how what she doing now garth brooks lyrics control their devices — not be controlled by their devices.
Do you have tween boys? What do your boys enjoy doing? Please leave a comment if you have more ideas how to apply online for new ration card in delhi share! I have one Ham Radio, find a club at arrl. My son has had a lot of fun with Ham Radio the last few months. Also, you can use the Snap Circuit set with other electronics.
Azariah and I figured wjat how to hook up the Snap Circuit set to an old Electric Fence solar panel to run some of the different Circuits. It was a fun learning experience for both of us. I'm 13 and I am a computer genius, so Wbat told. I have a good project for y'all u should try hammock making, I have made 2 hammocks and working on 2 more.
U can look up videos on youtube and its free. Also i recommend bicycling, it will ware out your teen and the'll have fun. These are great. My son has made a radio and a mic with the snap circuits. We have the keva blocks, but Co like the ones you have better so I added it to dies wish list. My son also enjoys hex bugs he has a whole environment for themand all kinds of puzzles. He reads and writes letters to friends as well.
Letterboxing is a great alternative to geocaching. Go to atlasquest. You follow clues instead of coordinates. Lots of fun for the whole family.
There are tutorials on the website. Really good suggestions, Sarah. Andrew is turning 13 in a couple of days, and I know some of these ideas will appeal to him.
My favourite is your suggestion to hand over the camera. I rarely use my point and shoot, so twren just sitting in a drawer. I've never thought to let him use it. I'm going to do that today! Thank you! We let Aidan take our old point and shoot on a trip with his grandparents, and he totally filled the memory card in one day!
The great thing about photography is that they can literally just point and shoot, or delve deeper and learn more about lighting and composing good shots. My son loves constructing things, so he often does papercrafts download designs from the internet, print on cardstock, cut apart with xacto knife and glue with low-temp glue gun. They take forever but they are so cool when finished.
A couple years ago my son started learning card tricks and wuat got really good at them. He learned from watching Youtube videos so he wasn't completely unplugged, but still. Then he moved on to balloon animals.
He got so good that what is amount financed on a car started doing them for birthday parties. He's done countless kids' parties, business grand openings, block parties, etc.
We bought des and a simple hand pump and twene learned, again, with Youtube videos so the cost was minimal. Face painting is another great hobby and money maker. My little guys taeen running around painted like tigers or dors for months.
The designs can get very intricate, which is perfect for artistic kids who like a challenge. Although they may need Youtube for some of these, I would rather they be learning something instead of playing video games. We've checked out some of those Youtube videos on balloon animals, and there are some good ones out there.
I how to receive satellite tv for free how those skills can lead to a job opportunity! Can co share a few of the papercraft sites that you use to download patterns that your boys like to tweeen I Love all these great ro My son is 9 and in need of a few activities to keep him occupied this summer. I love balloon animals idea and card tricks whwt well. Thanks so much for these ideas. I'm glad I discovered your website, and I can't wait to explore the rest of your ideas.
My son saw that I had this up on the computer, read the headline and said "Nice try Mom. I'm not doing any of this stuff. Thanks for the ideas! How awesome! I have two and they love to build. Thanks for sharing I'll be bookmarking this post for how to download cheat engine in dragon city and Christmas gift ideas. Great ideas. My grandson loves the snap circuits and we'll try Home Depot and the Keva blocks.
I'll look into the ham radio idea, too. Cathy B. This is a great list. My boys I have 3 would love some of these. I think the chain reaction looks really cool and whatt pipe cleaner ninjas would have them entertained as well. Thanks for sharing! My son read the Origami Yoda doess series recently which started his interest in origami.
He and his friend have spent hours making regiments of paper storm troopers and all the other characters from Star How to calculate working capital ratio formula. Sewing can actually be a fun and useful skill for boys to have. My hubby made a plush twern ball and football as a tween and still has them!
This is also a good age to teach fo to sew. I used a book called Buckles and Bobbins for my boys. Projects in the book include a pillow case, cargo pants and a tool roll up just to name a few. Terrific ideas--thank you! Like other readers, I am diligently trying to limit electronics. Some other seasonal ideas: bowling, ice skating, roller skating, skiing.
With what does tween 20 do over guests last weekend, my son decided to have his friends build "egg drop" crafts out of recyclables. They then dropped the eggs from the second floor and checked to see if the egg remained intact. This was a good rainy day activity! I am going to take another readers suggestion twesn the spring to get my boys, age 9 and 12 out "mountain" biking in the nearby metro parks.
Thanks twren I'm a grandmother of One of my grandsons use to get off the bus here. He came in one day and wanted to do something
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To prepare % Tween 20, I usually add 10uL of Tween 20 in 20mL DI water. You can prepare Tween 80 in similar fashion. Cite. 6 Recommendations. All Answers (9) 14th Dec, Although the majority of tween relationships won't last long, some tween romances do have staying power. One study found that 20% of to year-olds had a relationship that lasted at least 11 months. Given how fast tweens' lives are changing, 11 months is certainly a significant period of time. That said, though, relationships among tweens. TWEEN 20 is a nonionic detergent widely used in biochemical applications. It has been used as an emulsifying agent for the preparation of stable oil-in-water emulsions. TWEEN 20 has been used in pre-extraction of membranes to remove peripheral proteins (used .
Discussions of race and intelligence , specifically claims of differences in intelligence along racial lines, have appeared in both popular science and academic research since the modern concept of race was first introduced. With the inception of IQ testing in the early 20th century, differences in average test performance between racial groups were observed, though these differences have fluctuated and in some cases steadily decreased over time.
Further complicating the issue, modern science regards race as a social construct rather than a biological reality, and intelligence has no agreed-upon definition. The validity of IQ testing as a metric for human intelligence is itself disputed.
Today, the scientific consensus is that genetics does not explain differences in IQ test performance between racial groups, and that observed differences are therefore environmental in origin.
Claims of inherent differences in intelligence between races have played a central role in the history of scientific racism. In the s, groups of eugenics lobbyists argued that these results demonstrated that African-Americans and certain immigrant groups were of inferior intellect to Anglo-Saxon white people , and that this was due to innate biological differences.
In turn, they used such beliefs to justify policies of racial segregation. However, soon other studies appeared, contesting these conclusions and arguing instead that the Army tests had not adequately controlled for environmental factors, such as socio-economic and educational inequality between black people and white people.
Later observations of phenomena such as the Flynn effect and disparities in access to prenatal care also highlighted ways in which environmental factors affect group IQ differences. In recent decades, as understanding of human genetics has advanced, claims of inherent differences in intelligence between races have been broadly rejected by scientists on both theoretical and empirical grounds.
Claims of differences in intelligence between races have been used to justify colonialism , slavery , racism , social Darwinism , and racial eugenics. Racial thinkers such as Arthur de Gobineau relied crucially on the assumption that black people were innately inferior to white people in developing their ideologies of white supremacy.
Even Enlightenment thinkers such as Thomas Jefferson , a slave owner, believed black people to be innately inferior to white people in physique and intellect.
Du Bois , and the poet Paul Laurence Dunbar stood as high-profile counterexamples to widespread stereotypes of black intellectual inferiority. The first practical intelligence test was developed between and by Alfred Binet in France for school placement of children. Binet warned that results from his test should not be assumed to measure innate intelligence or used to label individuals permanently.
In Terman wrote that Mexican-Americans, African-Americans, and Native Americans have a mental "dullness [that] seems to be racial, or at least inherent in the family stocks from which they come. Based on the Army's data, prominent psychologists and eugenicists such as Henry H. Goddard , Harry H. Laughlin , and Princeton professor Carl Brigham wrote that people from southern and eastern Europe were less intelligent than native-born Americans or immigrants from the Nordic countries, and that black Americans were less intelligent than white Americans.
In the s, some US states enacted eugenic laws, such as Virginia's Racial Integrity Act , which established the one-drop rule of ' racial purity ' as law. Many scientists reacted negatively to eugenicist claims linking abilities and moral character to racial or genetic ancestry.
They pointed to the contribution of environment such as speaking English as a second language to test results. The psychologist Carl Brigham repudiated his own earlier arguments, explaining that he had come to realize that the tests were not a measure of innate intelligence. Discussions of the issue in the United States, especially in the writings of Madison Grant, influenced German Nazi claims that the "Nordics" were a " master race.
As the desegregation of the American South gained traction in the s, debate about black intelligence resurfaced. Audrey Shuey , funded by Draper's Pioneer Fund , published a new analysis of Yerkes' tests, concluding that black people really were of inferior intellect to white people.
This study was used by segregationists to argue that it was to the advantage of black children to be educated separately from the superior white children. Another revival of public debate followed the appearance of The Bell Curve , a book by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray that supported the general viewpoint of Jensen.
Some of the authors proposing genetic explanations for group differences have received funding from the Pioneer Fund , which was headed by J. Philippe Rushton until his death in The Southern Poverty Law Center lists the Pioneer Fund as a hate group , citing the fund's history, its funding of race and intelligence research, and its connections with racist individuals.
The concept of intelligence and the degree to which intelligence is measurable are matters of debate. There is no consensus about how to define intelligence; nor is it universally accepted that it is something that can be meaningfully measured by a single figure. Correlations between scores on various types of IQ tests led English psychologist Charles Spearman to propose in the existence of an underlying factor, which he referred to as " g " or " general intelligence ".
With regard to this " g factor ", Spearman claimed that "a person can no more be trained to have it in higher degree than he can be trained to be taller. Other psychometricians have argued that, whether or not there is such a thing as a general intelligence factor, performance on tests relies crucially on knowledge acquired through prior exposure to the types of tasks that such tests contain.
This means that comparisons of test scores between persons with widely different life experiences and cognitive habits do not reveal their relative innate potentials. The majority of anthropologists today consider race to be a sociopolitical phenomenon rather than a biological one,   a view supported by considerable genetics research. It derives from people's desire to classify. The official position of the AAA, adopted in , is that advances in scientific knowledge have made it "clear that human populations are not unambiguous, clearly demarcated, biologically distinct groups" and that "any attempt to establish lines of division among biological populations [is] both arbitrary and subjective.
It was never accurate in the past, and it remains inaccurate when referencing contemporary human populations. Humans are not divided biologically into distinct continental types or racial genetic clusters. In studies of human intelligence, race is almost always determined using self-reports rather than analyses of genetic characteristics. According to psychologist David Rowe, self-report is the preferred method for racial classification in studies of racial differences because classification based on genetic markers alone ignore the "cultural, behavioral, sociological, psychological, and epidemiological variables" that distinguish racial groups.
Tang et al. Anthropologist C. Loring Brace  and geneticist Joseph Graves disagree with the idea that cluster analysis and the correlation between self-reported race and genetic ancestry support the notion of biological races. The cluster structure of the genetic data is dependent on the initial hypotheses of the researcher and the populations sampled.
When one samples continental groups, the clusters become continental; if one had chosen other sampling patterns, the clusters would be different. Kaplan concludes that, while differences in particular allele frequencies can be used to identify populations that loosely correspond to the racial categories common in Western social discourse, the differences are of no more biological significance than the differences found between any human populations e.
The study of human intelligence is one of the most controversial topics in psychology, in part because of difficulty reaching agreement about the meaning of intelligence and objections to the assumption that intelligence can be meaningfully measured by IQ tests. Claims that there are innate differences in intelligence between racial and ethnic groups—which go back at least to the 19th century—have been criticized both for relying on specious assumptions and research methods and for serving as an ideological framework for discrimination and racism.
In a study of tests of different components of intelligence, Hampshire et al. More relevantly, it is questionable whether they [population differences in intelligence test scores] relate to a unitary intelligence factor, as opposed to a bias in testing paradigms toward particular components of a more complex intelligence construct. There are a number of reasons why the genetic argument for race differences in intelligence has not won many adherents in the scientific community.
First, even taken on its own terms, the case made by Jensen and his followers did not hold up to scrutiny. Second, the rise of population genetics undercut the claims for a genetic cause of intelligence. Third, the new understanding of institutional racism offered a better explanation for the existence of differences in IQ scores between the races. In the US, individuals identifying themselves as Asian generally tend to score higher on IQ tests than Caucasians, who tend to score higher than Hispanics, who tend to score higher than African Americans.
Nevertheless, greater variation in IQ scores exists within each ethnic group than between them. The report also acknowledged problems with the racial categories used, as these categories are neither consistently applied, nor homogeneous see also race and ethnicity in the United States.
In the UK, some African groups have higher average educational attainment and standardized test scores than the overall population. For the two other African ethnic groups on which data was available, the likelihood was Overall, the average pass rate by ethnicity was During the 20th century raw scores on IQ tests were rising; this score increase is known as the "Flynn effect," named after James R.
In the United States, the increase was continuous and approximately linear from the earliest years of testing to about when the gains stopped and some tests even showed decreasing test scores. For example, the average scores of black people on some IQ tests in were the same as the scores of white people in Flynn has argued that, given that these changes took place between one generation and the next, it is highly unlikely that genetic factors could have accounted for the increasing scores, which must then have been caused by environmental factors.
This had previously been doubted. A separate phenomenon from the Flynn effect has been the discovery that the IQ gap was gradually closing over the last decades of the 20th century, as black test-takers increased their average scores relative to white test-takers.
For instance, Vincent reported in that the black—white IQ gap was decreasing among children, but that it was remaining constant among adults.
In the same period, the educational achievement disparity also diminished. Environmental factors including childhood lead exposure ,  low rates of breast feeding ,  and poor nutrition   can significantly affect cognitive development and functioning. For example, childhood exposure to lead, associated with homes in poorer areas,  causes an average IQ drop of 7 points,  and iodine deficiency causes a fall , on average, of 12 IQ points.
The first two years of life is the critical time for malnutrition, the consequences of which are often irreversible and include poor cognitive development, educability, and future economic productivity. At the same time white mothers are twice as likely to breastfeed their infants, and breastfeeding is highly correlated with IQ for low birthweight infants.
In this way a wide number of health related factors that influence IQ are unequally distributed between the two groups. The Copenhagen consensus in stated that lack of both iodine and iron has been implicated in impaired brain development, and this can affect enormous numbers of people: it is estimated that one-third of the total global population is affected by iodine deficiency.
Other scholars have found that simply the standard of nutrition has a significant effect on population intelligence, and that the Flynn effect may be caused by increasing nutrition standards across the world. Some recent research has argued that the retardation caused in brain development by infectious diseases , many of which are more prevalent in non-white populations, may be an important factor in explaining the differences in IQ between different regions of the world.
A meta-analysis by the World Health Organization found that, after controlling for maternal IQ, breastfeeding was associated with IQ gains of 2. The authors suggest that this relationship is causal but state that the practical significance of this gain is debatable; however, they highlight one study suggesting an association between breastfeeding and academic performance in Brazil, where "breastfeeding duration does not present marked variability by socioeconomic position.
They suggest that "much of the beneficial long-term effects typically attributed to breastfeeding, per se, may primarily be due to selection pressures into infant feeding practices along key demographic characteristics such as race and socioeconomic status.
Several studies have proposed that a large part of the gap can be attributed to differences in quality of education. The Abecedarian Early Intervention Project , an intensive early childhood education project, was also able to bring about an average IQ gain of 4. A series of studies by Joseph Fagan and Cynthia Holland measured the effect of prior exposure to the kind of cognitive tasks posed in IQ tests on test performance.
Assuming that the IQ gap was the result of lower exposure to tasks using the cognitive functions usually found in IQ tests among African American test takers, they prepared a group of African Americans in this type of tasks before taking an IQ test. The researchers found that there was no subsequent difference in performance between the African-Americans and white test takers. A study found that two variables—stereotype threat and the degree of educational attainment of children's fathers—partially explained the black—white gap in cognitive ability test scores, undermining the hereditarian view that they stemmed from immutable genetic factors.
Different aspects of the socioeconomic environment in which children are raised have been shown to correlate with part of the IQ gap, but they do not account for the entire gap. The same review also points out that adoption studies generally are biased towards including only high and high middle SES adoptive families, meaning that they will tend to overestimate average genetic effects.
They also note that studies of adoption from lower-class homes to middle-class homes have shown that such children experience a 12 to 18 point gain in IQ relative to children who remain in low SES homes.
A number of studies have reached the conclusion that IQ tests may be biased against certain groups. A report by the American Psychological Association states that intelligence can be difficult to compare across cultures, and notes that differing familiarity with test materials can produce substantial differences in test results; it also says that tests are accurate predictors of future achievement for black and white Americans, and are in that sense unbiased.
James R. Flynn, surveying studies on the topic, notes that the weight and presence of many test questions depends on what sorts of information and modes of thinking are culturally valued. According to a article in the journal Intelligence , [a] a survey found that most researchers in the field of intelligence measurement do not believe there is robust evidence for the claim that IQ tests are racially or culturally biased.