Nigeria: A state, nation or society?
Dec 28, · Following the end of the Civil War in , it became obvious and clear that for Nigeria to exist and survive as a nation state in unity, peace and progress, requires a Consensus True Federal. For an entity to be called a State or an Independent Country and which Nigeria is, it must fulfill these criteria: Has space or territory which has internationally recognised boundaries (boundary disputes are OK). Has people who live there on an ongoing basis. Has economic activity and an organised.
Fromfollowing the end of Nigeria-Biafra Civil War, Nigeria was again kept together by the continuation of military rule and military dictatorship until October when Nigeria tried once more with civilian democratic administration. This did not last long because it was overthrown again at the end of December, Violence is not the answer, see what happened to Sudan. This suggestion is almost similar to how United Kingdom of Great Britain of England, Scotland and Wales respectively came into being as one nation state in and how Canada of English Speaking and French Speaking nationalities came into being after the American War of Independence atate have continued united and making real economic and industrial progress.
This is the painful truth. Ntaion should now be done is for all leaders of all the ethnic nationalities comprised in Nigeria to reach out with sincerity to one another and tell each other frankly the home truths of why Nigeria as a nation state from our history is not moving forward and what to do for Nigeria to do so in whag and not by brick backs or denigrating one another.
This is what we should let our youths, born during and after the civil war know and understand, instead of selfishly using and wasting them in all kinds of insurrections, such as Avengers, MASSOB, IPOB, etc.
Nigeria, as a real united and peaceful nation state, is a Great Treasure we Nigerians must keep how to figure out bike tire size the good of the African continent.
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Is Nigeria a Country, a State or a Nation? What Really Is the Difference?
Apr 01, · From the analysis above, Nigeria grew past the stage of a society since our British colonialist moved Lord Lugard from East Africa to Nigeria . There is also a term “nation-State”, which is defined as a country which is mostly made up of people who belong to the same nation. Nigeria is not a nation-State, because it is a multinational territory and there are many people of different nations. To be a nation-State, the . Debo Kayode Ogunranti., lived in Nigeria. Answered 2 years ago · Author has answers and M answer views. There are a few things to define here: State: "A state is an organized community living under a unified political system, the government" (Wiki definition).
It borders Niger in the north , Chad in the northeast , Cameroon in the east , and Benin in the west. Its southern coast is on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. Nigeria is a federal republic comprising 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory , where the capital, Abuja , is located. Lagos , one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world, is the largest city in Nigeria and the continent of Africa.
Nigeria has been home to several indigenous pre-colonial states and kingdoms since the second millennium BC , with the Nok Civilization having been the first time the country had been unified internally in the 15th Century B. The modern state originated with British colonialization in the 19th century, taking its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in by Lord Lugard.
The British set up administrative and legal structures while practicing indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms. It experienced a civil war from to , followed by a succession of democratically-elected civilian governments and military dictatorships , until achieving a stable democracy in ; the presidential election was the first time an incumbent president had lost re-election.
Nigeria is a multinational state inhabited by more than ethnic groups speaking distinct languages , all identifying with a wide variety of cultures. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, and the seventh-most populous country in the world, with an estimated population of million. Nigeria is often referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy,  and is considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank.
It is a regional power in Africa, a middle power in international affairs, and is also an emerging global power. However, the country ranks very low in the Human Development Index , and remains one of the most corrupt nations in the world. The name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined on January 8, , by British journalist Flora Shaw , who later married Lord Lugard , a British colonial administrator.
The neighbouring Niger takes its name from the same river. The origin of the name Niger , which originally applied to only the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is likely an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-iger ewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism.
It produced life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa      and smelted iron by about BC and possibly a few centuries earlier.
The Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in Nri and Aguleri , where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan.
Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century,  and its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures.
Since the populations were partially affiliated with the Arab Muslim culture of North Africa , they started to trade and be referred to by the Arabic speakers as Al-Sudan meaning "The Blacks" as they were considered an extended part of the Muslim world. There are early historical references by medieval Arab and Muslim historians and geographers which refer to the Kanem-Bornu Empire as the region's major centre for Islamic civilization.
In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of Southern Nigeria , at the port they named Lagos and in Calabar along the region Slave Coast.
Europeans traded goods with peoples at the coast; coastal trade with Europeans also marked the beginnings of the Atlantic slave trade. A number of slave routes were established throughout Nigeria linking the hinterland areas with the major coastal ports. Some of the more prolific slave trading kingdoms who participated in the transatlantic slave trade were linked with the Edo's Benin Empire in the south, Oyo Empire in the southwest, and the Aro Confederacy in the southeast.
Their dominance reached as far as the city of Eko an Edo name later changed to Lagos by the Portuguese and further. The Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria. In the north, the incessant fighting amongst the Hausa city-states and the decline of the Bornu Empire gave rise to the Fulani people gaining headway into the region. Until this point, the Fulani a nomadic ethnic group primarily traversed the semi-desert Sahelian region, north of the Sudan, with cattle and avoided trade and intermingling with the Sudanic peoples.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio led a successful jihad against the Hausa Kingdoms founding the centralised Sokoto Caliphate also known as the Fulani Empire.
The empire with Arabic as its official language grew rapidly under his rule and that of his descendants , who sent out invading armies in every direction. The vast landlocked empire connected the East with the West Sudan region and made inroads down south conquering parts of the Oyo Empire modern-day Kwara , and advanced towards the Yoruba heartland of Ibadan , with the goal of reaching the Atlantic Ocean. The territory controlled by the Empire included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria.
The Sultan sent out emirs to establish a suzerainty over the conquered territories and promote Islamic civilization, the Emirs in turn became increasingly rich and powerful through trade and slavery. By the s, the largest slave population in the world, about two million, was concentrated in the territories of the Sokoto Caliphate.
The use of slave labor was extensive, especially in agriculture. A changing legal imperative transatlantic slave trade outlawed by Britain in and economic imperative a desire for political and social stability led most European powers to support the widespread cultivation of agricultural products, such as the palm, for use in European industry. The Atlantic slave trade was engaged in by European companies until it was outlawed in After that illegal smugglers purchased slaves along the coast by native slavers.
Britain's West Africa Squadron sought to intercept the smugglers at sea. The rescued slaves were taken to Freetown , a colony in West Africa originally established for the resettlement of freed slaves from Britain.
Britain intervened in the Lagos Kingship power struggle by bombarding Lagos in , deposing the slave trade friendly Oba Kosoko, helping to install the amenable Oba Akitoye , and signing the Treaty between Great Britain and Lagos on 1 January British missionaries expanded their operations and traveled further inland.
In , British claims to a West African sphere of influence received recognition from other European nations at the Berlin Conference. By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the company had vastly succeeded in subjugating the independent southern kingdoms along the Niger River , the British conquered Benin in , and, in the Anglo-Aro War — , defeated other opponents.
The defeat of these states opened up the Niger area to British rule. In , the company's territory came under the direct control of the British government and established the Southern Nigeria Protectorate as a British protectorate and part of the British Empire , the foremost world power at the time.
By , the British had begun plans to move north into the Sokoto Caliphate. Lugard used rivalries between many of the emirs in the southern reach of the caliphate and the central Sokoto administration to prevent any defense as he worked towards the capital. As the British approached the city of Sokoto, the new Sultan Muhammadu Attahiru I organized a quick defense of the city and fought the advancing British-led forces.
The British force quickly won, sending Attahiru I and thousands of followers on a Mahdist hijra. In the northeast, the decline of the Bornu Empire gave rise to the British-controlled Borno Emirate which established Abubakar Garbai of Borno as the ruler.
In , the British-victory in the Battle of Kano gave them a logistical edge in pacifying the heartland of the Sokoto Caliphate and parts of the former Bornu Empire. On March 13, , at the grand market square of Sokoto, the last Vizier of the Caliphate officially conceded to British rule. Fredrick Lugard abolished the Caliphate, but retained the title Sultan as a symbolic position in the newly organized Northern Nigeria Protectorate.
This remnant became known as " Sokoto Sultanate Council ". In June , the British defeated the remaining forces of Attahiru I and killed him; by resistance to British rule had ended. Inhabitants of the southern region sustained more interaction, economic and cultural, with the British and other Europeans owing to the coastal economy. Christian missions established Western educational institutions in the Protectorates.
Under Britain's policy of indirect rule and validation of Islamic tradition, the Crown did not encourage the operation of Christian missions in the northern, Islamic part of the country.
By independence in , regional differences in modern educational access were marked. The legacy, though less pronounced, continues to the present day. Imbalances between North and South were expressed in Nigeria's political life as well. For instance, northern Nigeria did not outlaw slavery until whilst in other parts of Nigeria slavery was abolished soon after colonialism.
Following World War II , in response to the growth of Nigerian nationalism and demands for independence, successive constitutions legislated by the British government moved Nigeria toward self-government on a representative and increasingly federal basis.
By the middle of the 20th century, a great wave for independence was sweeping across Africa. Nigeria achieved independence in Nigeria gained independence from the United Kingdom on 1 October , as the Federation of Nigeria with Abubakar Tafawa Balewa as its prime minister , while retaining the British monarch , Elizabeth II , as nominal head of state and Queen of Nigeria.
Azikiwe replaced the colonial governor-general in November The opposition comprised the comparatively liberal Action Group AG , which was largely dominated by the Yoruba and led by Obafemi Awolowo. At independence, the cultural and political differences were sharp among Nigeria's dominant ethnic groups: the Hausa—Fulani ' Northerners ' , Igbo ' Easterners ' and Yoruba ' Westerners '. Southern Cameroons since renamed by separatists as Ambazonia opted to join the Republic of Cameroon while Northern Cameroons chose to join Nigeria.
The northern part of the country then became larger than the southern part. In , the nation established a Federal Republic , with Azikiwe as its first president. The disequilibrium and perceived corruption of the electoral and political process led, in , to back-to-back military coups. The coup plotters succeeded in assassinating Sir Ahmadu Bello and Abubakar Tafawa Balewa alongside prominent leaders of the Northern Region and also Premier Samuel Akintola of the Western Region , but the coup plotters struggled to form a central government.
Later, the counter-coup of , supported primarily by Northern military officers, facilitated the rise Yakubu Gowon as military head of state. Tension rose between North and South; Igbos in Northern cities suffered persecution and many fled to the Eastern Region.
Colonel Emeka Ojukwu declared the region independent from the federation as a state called the Republic of Biafra , under his leadership. The month war, with a long siege of Biafra and its isolation from trade and supplies, ended in January Britain and the Soviet Union were the main military backers of the Nigerian government; with Nigeria utilizing air support from Egyptian pilots provided by Gamal Abdel Nasser ,   while France and Israel aided the Biafrans.
Following the war, Nigeria enjoyed the oil boom of the s, during which the country joined OPEC and received huge oil revenues.
Despite these revenues, the military government did little to improve the standard of living of the population, help small and medium businesses, or invest in infrastructure. As oil revenues fueled the rise of federal subsidies to states, the federal government became the centre of political struggle and the threshold of power in the country. As oil production and revenue rose, the Nigerian government became increasingly dependent on oil revenues and international commodity markets for budgetary and economic concerns.
For this triumvirate, they convinced General Murtala Mohammad to become military head of state, with General Olusegun Obasanjo as his second-in-command, and General Theophilus Danjuma as the third. Dimka lacked widespread support among the military and his coup failed, forcing him to flee. In , a constituent assembly was elected to draft a new constitution, which was published on September 21, , when the ban on political activity was lifted.
The military carefully planned the return to civilian rule putting in place measures to ensure that political parties had broader support than witnessed during the first republic.
All five parties won representation in the National Assembly. Obasanjo peacefully transferred power to Shagari, becoming the first head of state in Nigerian history to willingly step down. The Shagari government became viewed as corrupt by virtually all sectors of Nigerian society. In the inspectors of the state-owned Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation NNPC began to notice "the slow poisoning of the waters of this country".
But the elections were marred by violence and allegations of widespread vote rigging and electoral malfeasance led to legal battles over the results. There were also uncertainties, such as in the first republic, that political leaders may be unable to govern properly which would bring another batch of new military rulers.